What's the difference between renal and kidney failure?
There is no difference, they are both the same thing. Renal is another word for kidney.
What are the abbreviations CRF, ARF etc?
CRF stands for "chronic renal failure" and means the disease is slow and progressive.
ARF stands for "acute renal failure" and means that the disease has come on suddenly.
What do the kidneys do?
The kidneys perform several important functions, including:
- Filtering waste products from the blood
- Regulates blood pH
- Produces hormones which stimulate the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
- Maintains correct balance of certain minerals
What exactly is kidney failure and how does it happen?
Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are damaged and they lose their ability to perform their functions efficiently.
Chronic renal failure is slow and progressive. It is more commonly seen in older cats. The kidneys contain thousands of filtering units called "nephrons", over time these become damaged and die. The kidneys compensate by increasing the size of the remaining nephrons. However, as more and more nephrons die, kidney function is compromised. When 70% of function is lost, you will notice symptoms of chronic renal failure. There are many causes of chronic renal failure including ageing, infections, and toxins. Obviously, as the cat becomes older, the kidneys have had more exposure to the damaging effects listed above.
Acute kidney failure occurs suddenly. Common causes include decreased blood flow to the kidneys (caused by heart failure, low blood pressure, blood loss), urinary tract obstruction, infection, poisoning, vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels).
When the kidneys become damaged, they are not as effective at filtering the blood, which in turn leads to the build up of toxins in the body. The kidneys also lose their ability to concentrate urine.
What are the symptoms of kidney failure?
How is kidney failure diagnosed?
Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical examination of your cat and obtain a medical history from you. There are a number of medical conditions with similar symptoms, so he will need to run some diagnostic tests to reach a final diagnosis. These may include:
- Biochemical profile may reveal elevated BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatinine levels.
- Urinalysis to evaluate the concentration of the urine.
- Kidney ultrasound or x-ray to evaluate the size and the shape of the kidney. A biopsy may be taken at this time.
How is kidney failure treated?
There is no cure for kidney failure and treatment is aimed at medically managing the condition and supporting the kidneys. Treatment may include:
- Feeding a high-quality protein diet.
- Fluids to treat dehydration.
- Medications to treat high blood pressure, which is common for cats with kidney failure.
- Phosphorus binders to control high phosphorus levels which can occur as the kidneys are not as efficient at removing excess phosphorous from the body.
- Antacids to relieve nausea.