Endodontic relates to the inner structures of the tooth, including the pulp and tissues surrounding the tooth root.
Endodontic disease refers to any inflammation of the pulp, (also known as pulpitis). Pulpitis can be reversible or irreversible.
In the case of reversible pulpitis, once the cause of inflammation is removed, the pulp returns to its healthy state.
Left untreated, irreversible pulpitis occurs, resulting from severe inflammation of the pulp which is extremely painful. Over time, the pulp becomes necrotic (dies), and pain subsides.
The cause of endodontic disease in cats is usually a dental fracture which exposes the pulp, although caries and advanced periodontal disease can also be causes. Bacteria from the mouth gain access to the exposed area causing infection. Upper canine teeth are especially predisposed to trauma . Bacteria can descend to the root causing an abscess. Symptoms of tooth root abscess include reluctance to eat, bleeding from the nose and facial swelling.
What are the symptoms of endodontic disease in cats?
- When the pulp is first exposed, the tooth is painful.
- Once the tooth has died, there may be little to no pain.
- Some tooth root abscesses may open to the outside, forming a draining tract. Or there may be oral swelling.
- If the tooth has died, it may be discoloured or 'grey'.
- Fever may be present if your cat has a dental root abscess.
Any dental fracture requires a trip to the veterinarian. Cats are very stoic and while they may not appear to be in pain, they undoubtedly will be. Immediate treatment of a fractured tooth can save your cat from unnecessary pain and quite likely prevent loss of the tooth.
How is endodontic disease diagnosed?
Your veterinarian will perform a physical examination and examine the mouth. A fractured tooth, a draining tract or a brown or discoloured tooth all indicate endodontic disease. Swelling around the affected tooth may also be visible.
Dental x-rays will help your veterinarian assess the severity of the infection.
How is endodontic disease treated?
This depends on how damaged the tooth is. If it can be saved, he will perform root canal treatment on the tooth. This involves your dentist removing the affected pulp and replacing it with a filling. If the tooth is badly infected or dead, he will extract it.
How to prevent endodontic disease:
Seek veterinarian assistance immediately if your cat has a tooth fracture. The problem will not go away without attention.
 Cat Health Encyclopedia - Edited by Lowell Ackerman.