These flowers are now very popular in floral arrangements (particularly in Australia) but while we may admire their beauty, they are deadly to cats. Cat owners need to be aware that having these flowers in your home can prove fatal. Lily poisoning causes acute kidney failure and if you suspect your cat has eaten any, prompt veterinary attention is absolutely vital.
Although any cat is at risk, kittens are particularly vulnerable due to their curious nature. The exact toxin isn't known, but what is understood is that it is water soluble and ingestion leads to renal tubular epithelium cell necrosis (death) through a mechanism which isn't yet understood.
All parts of the plant are poisonous including the leaf, stamen, pollen, flowers and roots with only a tiny amount (less than one leaf) is enough to poison a cat.
Lilies of the genera Lilium and Hemerocallis are known to be toxic to cats. Common species include:
|Common name||Scientific name|
|Tiger lily||Lilium Lancifolium syn. (Lilium Tigrinum)|
|Rubrum lily||Lilium Speciosum|
|Asian lily||Lilium Asiatica|
|Stargazer lily||Lilium Orientalis|
|Easter lily||Lilium Longiflorum|
What are the symptoms of lily poisoning in cats?
There are two stages of lily poisoning in the cat. The first stage occurs due to gastrointestinal upset. Symptoms occur 30 minutes to 2 hours after ingestion and include:
Vomiting usually subsides a few hours after exposure although anorexia and depression typically remain. However, within 72 hours acute kidney failure occurs, symptoms include:
Decreased urination (anuria).
Increased or decreased thirst.
How is lily poisoning diagnosed?
There are no specific tests available to diagnose lily poisoning, and diagnosis is based on a history of exposure to the plant along with signs of acute kidney failure. Your veterinarian will perform a physical examination of your cat which may reveal painful and enlarged kidneys. He will need to run several tests to determine the condition of the kidneys. These will include:
A biochemical profile will be taken for testing. Elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine are both indicative of renal failure.
Urinalysis will be able to provide additional information on the extent of kidney damage and urine-concentrating ability.
How is lily poisoning treated?
Prompt medical treatment is absolutely vital, the sooner your cat sees a vet, the better. Even with veterinary attention, there is no guarantee that your cat will survive, but the chances greatly decrease if treatment isn't commenced within 6 hours of exposure. Cats who are not treated within 18 hours generally do not survive, even with aggressive treatment.
There is no antidote for lily poisoning, treatment is aimed at removing any remaining plant material, preventing further absorption and fluid therapy.
Gastrointestinal tract decontamination by inducing vomiting. This needs to be performed within 1-2 hours of ingestion. Activated charcoal will be administered to prevent further absorption of the toxin in the stomach.
Intravenous fluid diuresis to maintain urine production is the mainstay of treatment in cats who are not anuric. This treatment will be carried out for 48-72 hours. The purpose of fluid diuresis to maintain fluid production is to speed up the removal of toxins in the blood (known as uremic poisoning) as well as treating dehydration.
If anuria has occurred peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis may be attempted, however, the prognosis is guarded to grave.
Supportive care and monitoring while your cat recovers.
Avoiding lily poisoning in cats:
Cat owners must be aware of the risks associated with keeping lilies in their house and garden and avoid having these extremely dangerous plants around cats.
Most people are unaware of just how deadly these plants can be to cats, it is always a good idea to inform friends, family and florists of the risks lilies pose to their cats.
When ordering flowers for friends or relatives, make sure they do not contain lilies of the genera Lilium and Hemerocallis if there is a cat living in the household.