Cats can be extremely stoic and if they are feeling unwell they tend to hide it well. Therefore it is up to you to be aware of subtle (or not so subtle) changes in your cat which may require veterinary attention.
Always be observant. You should be aware of eating habits, toileting, behaviour, sleeping, weight and general wellbeing. If you notice any changes, no matter how subtle it should be checked out with the vet. The earlier problems are caught, the better the chance of recovery.
If you are in any doubt about taking your cat to the vet it is ALWAYS better to err on the side of caution and seek help. Never wait and see because delaying medical attention may prolong suffering and mean that a sickness or injury is all the harder to treat.
Anorexia (refusal to eat):
It may not seem a big deal if your cat refuses food, after all he will eat if he becomes hungry enough, right? No, this is not the case. When a cat loses his appetite it can lead to a serious condition known as hepatic lipidosis (or fatty liver disease) which is life threatening. Loss of appetite can also just be a vague sign that your cat is not well. Some medical conditions which may cause your cat to lose his appetite include;
- Tick paralysis
- Addison's disease
- Bacterial infection (Bordetella)
- Certain medications
- Dental or mouth pain (gingivitis, tooth abscess, stomatitis)
- Feline diabetes
- Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)
- Gastrointestinal disease
- Hemobartonellosis (Feline Infectious Anemia)
- Injury or trauma
- Intestinal obstruction
- Kidney failure
- Neoplasia (abnormal cell growth)
- New or unpalatable diet
- Portosystemic shunt
As you can see, there is quite an extensive list of possible causes and this is by no means a complete list.
Unsteady, wobbly gait, walking in circles. This can have many possible causes including:
- Tick paralysis
- Middle ear problems
- Spinal injury
- Nervous system disorders
- Muscular skeletal damage
- Weakness and anemia
- Head trauma
- Thiamine deficiency
Bad breath is a sign there is a dental problem. Any dental problems need veterinary attention before they progress to something worse. Possible causes include:
- Kidney disease
- Diabetes mellitus
- Liver disease
- Tooth abscess
- Periodontal disease
- Intestinal problems
- Cancers of the mouth
Bleeding of any sort should be checked out.
Seek veterinary care if you notice panting, wheezing, coughing, suffering shortness of breath. There are many causes of breathing difficulty including:
No matter how mild, any burns should be checked.
Change in toileting habits:
Changes such as urinating more or less often, straining to go to the toilet, toileting in inappropriate places. There are many reasons why your cat's toileting habits may have changed, all warranting investigation by your veterinarian. Some causes are fairly benign such as dirty litter tray, others have more serious causes, some reasons include;
- Urinary tract infection
- Kidney disease
Coughing isn't seen as often in cats as it is in dogs but it always warrants further investigation. Possible causes include:
- Roundworm migration
- Lung tumours
- Nasopharyngeal polyps
- Fungal infection
- Feline Bordetella
Diarrhea lasting more than 12 hours or if it is blood or mucous tinged or accompanied by other signs of sickness.
Diarrhea in kittens is especially worrysome as they can become dehydrated so quickly. Urgent veterinary attention is necessary.
Even if your cat appears to be well after the incident, you should still seek veterinary attention.
Scratching may not appear to be a serious problem but it needs to be seen to. Possible causes of scratching include;
Another indicator that there is a potential problem is if your cat begins to drink more. There are many possible causes for this including;
- Kidney problems
Ingestion of toxic substance (including plants, medications, poisons):
Your cat may look okay, but the toxin could be causing irreversible damage, so veterinary attention is urgent.
May not appear to be serious but there are many causes of lameness and limping in cats, including:
- Back injuries
- Broken bone (fracture)
- Calicivirus (limping syndrome)
- Cancer or benign tumour
- Declawing pain
- Dislocation (bone popped out of joint)
- Foreign body in foot (shard of glass, splinter, thorn etc)
- Insect bite
- Joint injury (torn cartilage)
- Lyme disease
- Nail injuries (pulled claw, over trimmed claw)
- Overgrown claws
- Spinal cord or nerve injury
- Sprains or strains (joints, tendons, muscles)
Sudden weight loss or gain:
There are too many possible causes of weight loss and gain to list fully. Some more common causes include;
- Pregnancy and lactation
Any eye changes need to be seen by a veterinarian. These include minor or serious injury, change in eye colour, discharge, weeping, redness. Any eye problems are serious and could lead to blindness if not treated promptly.
- Bleeding from the nose
- Any discharge from the nose
If you notice or suspect your cat has ingested something toxic medical attention should be sought immediately.
Fortunately these are relatively uncommon in cats but if you suspect your cat has had a seizure veterinary attention is vital.
This is something else you may notice from time to time, and the occasional sneeze is relatively harmless, but if your cat is sneezing frequently, it is accompanied by mucus or your cat displays other signs of sickness, seek veterinary care immediately.
Possible causes include:
Upper respiratory infection (either caused by a virus or bacteria). This is the most common cause of sneezing in cats.
- Irritants (cigarette smoke, dust etc)
- Foreign object (grass seed etc)
- Dental abscess
- Nasal polyps
- Nasal cancer
- Fungal infection
Straining to go to the toilet:
Straining to go to the toilet can be mistaken for constipation, but a far more serious cause is FLUTD (feline lower urinary tract disease), which can lead to the cat becoming completely blocked and unable to urinate. Straining in the litter tray is always cause for concern and urgent veterinary attention necessary.
Any discharge from the vagina is abnormal and must be attended to immediately. Possible causes include;
- Acute Metritis
- Foreign body
All cats vomit from time to time and generally this is normal. You should seek medical attention if your cat vomits several times within an hour, the vomit contains blood, mucus or if your cat is also displaying other signs of sickness.
Vomiting in kittens should be investigated immediately.