Also referred to as dribbling, hypersalivation, sialorrhea or ptyalism, drooling is the flow of saliva from the mouth.
Saliva is constantly secreted by the salivary glands, its function is to keep the mouth moist and aid digestion. Cats have five salivary glands, parotid, mandibular, zygomatic, molar and sublingual. The autonomic nervous system controls saliva production.
Drooling can either be caused by overproduction of saliva, spillage of saliva from the mouth or difficulty swallowing saliva. Cats aren’t as prone to drooling as dogs.
There are some harmless causes that may result in drooling such as when they are being petted or about to be fed. This is a sign of excitement and/or pleasure. Cats will often drool when they have consumed catnip. Certain prescription medications can also cause drooling or foaming at the mouth due to the bitter or unpleasant taste.
If drooling is not normal for your cat, and suddenly occurs for reasons other than those listed above, it can be a sign that there is something wrong.
Another common cause of drooling is due to poisoning. Antifreeze, snail bait, toxic plants, laundry detergent, household cleaning products, bleach, liquid potpourri, mercury, copper, arsenic, poisonous toads, chocolate, glow sticks, mercury. Many of these products are not only toxic but also corrosive, causing ulceration in the mouth and esophagus.
Similar to colds and flu in humans, cat flu is an upper respiratory infection which is caused by a number of viruses or bacteria.
There are several causes of liver disease all of which affect the liver’s ability to function as it should including removing toxins from the blood. These toxins begin to build up in the brain, leading to neurological disturbances, this is known as hepatic encephalopathy. Some causes of liver disease include hepatic lipidosis, cholangitis, damage by toxins, toxoplasmosis, and tumours.
Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition which occurs when the cat is in a warm environment and is unable to cool himself sufficiently.
There are more than twenty types of cancer which can develop in the oral cavity of cats with squamous cell carcinoma being by far the most common (approximately 70%), followed by fibrosarcoma (20-10%), other less common tumours include melanoma, lymphoma, osteosarcoma, granular cell tumours, fibropapillomas, hemangiosarcoma and ameloblastomas.
Caused by an abnormal connection between the portal vein (a blood vessel which carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver) and the systemic circulation. As with liver disease, toxins begin to build up, leading to neurological disturbances (hepatic encephalopathy).
Chronic renal failure
Drooling in cats with kidney failure may be due to nausea, reflux or uremia (a build-up of toxins which would ordinarily be flushed out via the urine) which can cause mouth ulcers.
Neurotoxins injected into the cat’s bloodstream cause paralysis, once the poison reaches the head, drooling can develop.
There are many possible causes of neurological disturbances including cancer, rabies, seizures, poisoning, congenital disorders such as hydrocephalus (water on the brain), infectious diseases such as feline infectious peritonitis and bacterial infection which originate in the middle ear before progressing to the brain, neurotoxins from spider or snake bites, trauma, liver disease (see above).
Any changes in behaviour and/or new symptoms should be immediately investigated by your veterinarian. He will perform a complete physical examination of your cat, including a thorough examination of the mouth and observing other symptoms which may accompany the drooling.
Other symptoms to watch for:
Aside from drooling, other symptoms will depend on the underlying cause.
Reluctance to eat, oral swelling, facial swelling, red gums and bad breath.
Symptoms of poisoning can vary depending on the type of poison consumed but may include loss of appetite, lack of coordination (ataxia), vomiting, diarrhea, muscle twitching, painful abdomen, mouth ulcers, neurological signs, and seizures.
Excessive panting, bright red gums, weakness, anxiety.
Sneezing, nasal and/or eye discharge, fever, loss of appetite.
Jaundice (yellow gums), lethargy, diarrhea, vomiting, dark coloured urine, dark tarry stools (melena), neurological disorders such as behavioural changes and seizures.
Unable to close mouth, reluctance to eat, facial deformity, bleeding from the mouth, broken or missing teeth, pain.
Excessive thirst and urination, vomiting, weight loss, mouth ulcers, bad breath, and lethargy.
Pawing at the mouth, coughing, difficulty breathing, anxiety, fainting.
Licked topical flea/worming medication or bitter pills:
Smacking of the lips, possibly shaking the head. If your cat has ingested a large amount of flea product designed for the skin, poisoning may occur. Symptoms can include twitching, vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures.
Lesions in the mouth, reluctance to eat.
Kittens begin teething around 2 weeks of age. Symptoms of teething may include pain, chewing on objects and of course drooling.
Pawing at the mouth, bad breath (if the object has been there a while), anxiety.
Frequent vomiting, reduced appetite, weight loss.
Loss of appetite, lip-smacking, grinding teeth, listlessness.
Localised symptoms around the wound such as stiffness, this may progress to generalised stiffness of the entire body including the jaw which may become locked making eating and drinking difficult. Seizures may develop in advanced cases.
Behavioural changes, shortness of breath, unsteady gait, muscle stiffness, head pressing, circling, fever, collapse, and coma.
Fever, increased vocalisation, restlessness, aggression, irritability, muscle tremors, incoordination, paralysis of the throat, respiratory failure, coma.
This condition is extremely painful with symptoms including anorexia, loss of interest in surroundings, dehydration, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, wobbly gait, jaundice and weight loss.
Lump in the mouth, inability to close the mouth, pain, swelling, reluctance to eat, weight loss.
Muscle twitching, rigid extension of the legs, involuntary crying, champing or chewing, urinating and/or defecating.
Symptoms may vary depending on the underlying cause but may include seizures, changes in behaviour such as aggression or confusion, ataxia (wobbly gait), vocalisation, change in gait, limb weakness.
When to see a veterinarian:
If your cat appears to be otherwise happy and well with no additional symptoms a wait and see approach may be all that is necessary. If however, your cat is still drooling after a day, or if you notice any other symptoms accompanying the drooling, you should see a veterinarian immediately.
Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical examination of your cat. A complete medical history will be required, questions such as other symptoms you may have noticed if the cat has had access to any poisons or medications and how long the cat has been drooling for.
Accompanying symptoms (if any) may help to narrow down the cause of drooling. During the examination, your veterinarian will check the mouth for signs of dental problems, cancer or a foreign object in the mouth and assess the overall condition of your cat. Sedation may be necessary for a thorough oral exam.
Diagnostic tests will be necessary, which may include:
Complete blood count, urinalysis, and biochemical profile. These can provide your veterinarian with a picture of the cat’s overall health. If there is a sign of infection, dehydration, and how the organs including the liver and kidneys are functioning.
Other tests he may wish to perform include:
Ultrasound or x-ray to evaluate the organs (liver, kidneys, pancreas) and look for tumours or a dental abscess.
Biopsy and histopathology of oral tumours.
If reflux is suspected, your veterinarian may perform an endoscopy. This is a thin tube with a camera at the end which is inserted into the esophagus and digestive tract.
Specific blood tests will be necessary to diagnose pancreatitis, kidney, liver disease or infection.
Treatment will depend on the cause of drooling and may include:
Inducing vomiting, administration of activated charcoal or pumping the stomach may be necessary as well as supportive care while your cat recovers.
Treatment of dental problems such as tooth extraction, dental cleaning or antibiotics for infections.
Treating the underlying cause as well as administration of antu-nausea medication.
Removal of a foreign object.
Surgical removal (if possible) followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Most upper respiratory infections can’t be treated with medications but supportive care will be given to help your cat while he recovers. This may include administration of IV fluids, encouraging him to eat, keeping the eyes and nose clear of discharge.
Euthanasia as there is no treatment for rabies.
Surgery to correct the shunt or a low protein diet if surgery is not possible.
Chronic renal failure:
Prescription diet, medications, and supportive care.
Slowly bringing your cat’s body temperature down and giving supportive care.
Topical flea product ingestion:
Offer him a drink or some food if only a small amount has been ingested and monitor him. If other symptoms develop, your veterinarian will need to treat the symptoms, such as anti-seizure medication as well as supportive care such as IV fluids and nutritional support.
This depends on the kind of medicine ingested. If it is prescribed medication which has a bitter taste, your cat may salivate with no other symptoms.
Surgery to repair and realign the jaw.
Painkillers, supportive care such as IV fluids and anti-nausea medication, nutritional care may include a feeding tube, antibiotics, plasma transfusion may be necessary in some cases.
Address the underlying cause if one is found and antacids to protect the esophagus, medication to coat the lining of the esophagus if ulceration has developed, low protein low-fat diets may be prescribed.
Treatment depends on what has caused the liver disease but may include surgery to remove tumours, medications to control nausea, nutritional support, fluid therapy, vitamin K to assist with clotting, and in some cases, a plasma transfusion may be necessary.
Surgery to lance the abscess and clean it out and extraction of tooth where necessary.
Cleaning and debriding the wound, antibiotics to kill the bacteria, sedatives to control spasms and seizures, tube feeding and cage rest while your cat recovers.
There is no treatment for pseudorabies, it is almost always fatal.
Topical flea product ingestion:
There is no specific antidote for ingestion of topical flea products, treatment is aimed at managing symptoms such as controlling muscle tremors and activated charcoal to prevent further absorption.
Bitter tasting tablets:
There is no treatment for this, offer him some food or water after administration (unless stated otherwise on the packet) to help get rid of the taste.
Treating the underlying cause if possible and anti-convulsant medication.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Rabies and pseudorabies are almost always fatal. Infections may be treated with antibiotics to kill bacteria as well as supportive care. Seizures may be managed with anti-seizure medications.