|At a glance History Appearance Temperament Health Are Sphynx cats hypoallergenic?|
The Sphynx cat is an almost entirely hairless cat who originated from Toronto. The skin has a delightful chamois feel due to the presence of soft down hairs giving it a fuzzy peach appearance.
They have a reputation for being the clown of the cat world, with an inquisitive, outgoing and friendly personality they get along with everyone.
Hairless cats have cropped up from time to time throughout the world as a result of this spontaneous mutation. The condition which causes hairlessness is known as hypotrichosis, and is due to recessive gene symbolised with the letter h in lower case. As the gene is recessive, both parents must carry the gene to pass it on to their offspring.
Two hairless cats named Nellie and Dick were given to Mr. and Mrs. F.J. Shinick in 1902 by local Indians, these were named Mexican Hairless cats. Other hairless cats have turned up in Australia, Europe, and the United States. It is not known for sure if these spontaneous mutations are all the result of the same gene, three hairless conditions have been looked into, occurring in France, Canada, and England, and symbolised by h, hr and hd, respectively. It is believed to be closely linked to the Devon Rex gene re. 
Sphynx in Canada:
The Sphynx story began in 1966 in Toronto, Canada. A black and white domestic female by the name of Elizabeth gave birth to a hairless male kitten, named Prune. A local science student became interested in this unusual cat, and along with his mother Yania Bawa, a breeder of Siamese, obtained both Prune and his mother, Elizabeth. Prune was mated back to Elizabeth and this mating produced more bald kittens.
A breeding programme was planned to mate these bald cats to American Shorthairs. The CFA granted these cats new breed status, however by 1971 the status was revoked due to concerns over fertility. Unfortunately, these lines eventually died out.
Sphynx in the US:
The Sphynx of today is descended from four cats. Epidermis, Dermis, Paloma, and Punkie. A farm cat from Minnesota by the name of Jezabelle and owned by Ethelyn Pearson gave birth to a bald female kitten who was named Epidermis. The following year Jezabelle had a second bald kitten, named Dermis.
Meanwhile, back in Toronto, three more hairless cats occurred to the same queen, but in separate litters. Bambi was the first, a male who was neutered, then in 1979 and 1980 two females, Paloma and Punkie were born. These two cats were sent to Dutch breeder Dr. Hugo Hernandez. Hernandez mated Punkie to Mewsi-Kal Starsky (who was from the original Canadian lines originating from Elizabeth/Prune). These matings produced no kittens, so Hernandez then mated Punkie to a Devon Rex named Curare van Jetrophin. The resulting litter produced five kittens. Two males from this litter (Q. Ramses and Q. Ra) were used, along with Punkie’s half-sister, Paloma.
The descendants of these matings, along with the descendants of the Minnesota line (Dermis and Epidermis) went on to become the foundation cats of the Sphynx we know today. Domestics, American Shorthairs, and Devon Rexes have been used in breeding programmes to increase the gene pool.
The Sphynx isn’t a completely bald cat but has a fine layer of peachy fuzz on the skin. Some hair may also be found on the nose, tail, ears, and feet. Sphynx cats have no whiskers.
Wrinkles are a desired trait in the Sphynx. Due to the minimal hair, the Sphynx feels surprisingly warm. The feel of the Sphynx has been compared to that of a chamois.
The medium-sized body is long but with great muscle definition. It has a deep chest and legs which are in proportion to the body. Hind legs are slightly longer than the front legs. They have medium-sized, oval paws and a long, tapering tail. Sphynx cats have huge ears, broad at the base.
The head is wedge-shaped with rounded lines. There is a slight nose stop. The eyes are large and slightly slanting with the outer corners pointing towards the ears.
The Sphynx comes in every colour and pattern.
The Sphynx is an extremely outgoing, friendly and loving breed of cat. They love to climb and be up high and are always on the go. Part cat, part dog, part monkey is used to describe the Sphynx.
They get along well with people, including children and other pets. Due to their intelligence, they are easy to teach, often learning tricks and happily walking on a leash. They love company and do not do well if they are left alone for hours at a time.
Image Kirsteen Titchener, Flickr
The Sphynx cat is an overall healthy breed of cat but as with all cats, there is a higher incidence of certain conditions. In the Sphynx this includes the following:
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Sphynx cats produce more ear wax than other cats due to the lack of hair which requires regular cleaning. Also, due to their lack of coat, they can be prone to oiliness and may need fairly regular bathing. Only ever use a shampoo designed for cats on your Sphynx. Human shampoos contain harsh chemicals which are not good for a cat’s sensitive skin.
Due to their lack of coat, Sphynx cats should not be outdoor cats. Keep your Sphynx warm, especially in winter months as they do not tolerate the cold as well as other cats.
All cats need their teeth cared for with daily brushing with a cat toothbrush and toothpaste. Raw chicken necks and cubs of steak are also good for dental care.
A yearly visit to the veterinarian is important to ensure your Sphynx remains healthy and well, progressing to bi-annual visits once your cat reaches seven.
No, the protein responsible for allergies in humans is in the saliva and sebaceous glands of all cats. Admittedly, due to the lack of hair, there is no shedding, but they still shed skin and peachy fuzz into the environment.
References:  Robinson’s Genetics for Cat Breeders and Veterinarians – Carolyn M. Vella, Lorraine M. Shelton, John J. McGonagle and Terry W. Stanglein.